**Diploma Fluid mechanics and Fluid Power Important Questions**

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**Diploma Fluid Mechanics and Fluid power Important Questions**

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**Unit 1, Properties of Fluid Mechanics and Fluid Pressure **

**3 Marks**

- Define Fluid
- Classify the types of fluids
- List out the properties of fluids
- Define Density
- What is Capillarity?
- What is Viscosity?
- Define Vapour pressure and compresibility.
- What is specific volume of a fluid?
- Explain the terms cohesion and adhesion.
- What is intensity of pressure?
- Define Hydrostatic law.
- What is pressure head?
- Define Pascals law.
- Mention the applications of pascals law
- Explain the concepts Atmospheric pressure and absolute pressure.
- Explain the terms gauge pressure and vacuum pressure.
- Find the pressure at a point which is at 50m depth from the free surface of sea. The density of sea water is 1020 kg/m3.
- A gauge fitted to a gas records a pressure of 16.27 kN/m2 vacuum. Compute the corresponding absolute pressure in i) kN/m2 ii) meters of water. The local atmospheric pressure is 700mm of Hg.
- A gauge record a pressure of 25 kN/m2. Calculate the corresponding absolute pressure in kN/m2 and in ‘m’ of water. The local pressure is 760mm of Hg.
- A vacuum gauge reads 540 mm of mercury. If the local atmospheric pressure is 755mm of mercury. Calculate the absolute pressure of water in kN/m2.
- What is the gauge pressure in mm of mercury, when the pressure at a point is 18m of water absolute?
- state different types of manometers.

**7 / 14 marks**

- Define fluid and distinguish between ideal fluid and real fluid (7 marks)
- Name any five properties of a fluid and state their units (7 marks)
- What are the properties of a fluid? Briefly explain specific gravity and surface tension.
- Define the following properties of fluid and state their units (i) Density (ii) Specific weight (iii) viscosity
- Define pressure and obtain an expression for pressure intensity of a point in a fluid
- What is meant by pressure head? How can pressure be expressed in terms of the height of a liquid column?
- Explain gauge pressure, vacuum pressure and absolute pressure.
- State and prove pascals law. Explain with a neat sketch the working of hydraulic press.
- Explain the hydraulic press with a neat sketch
- Classify manometers. Why a heavy liquid such as mercury is preferred as manometer liquid.
- With simple sketches explain the working of a simple U Tube manometer to measure positive and negative pressures
- State and sketch different types of manometers
- Explain Bourdons tube pressure gauge with a neat sketch.
- A simple manometer is used to measure the pressure of oil of relative density 0.74 flowing in a pipe line. it’s right limb is open to atmosphere and the left limb is connected to the pipe. The center of the pipe is 0.1m below the level of mercury in the right limb, if the difference of mercury levels in the two limbs is 0.2 m. Determine the absolute pressure of the oil in the pipe in ‘Pa’
- A simple manometer is used to measure the pressure of water flowing in a pipe line. The right limb is open to atmosphere and the left limb is connected to the pipe, the center of the pipe is in the level with that of mercury in the right limb. Determine the pressure in the pipe in (a) m of water and (b) kN/m2 if the difference of mercury level in the two limbs is 100mm
- A manometer is used to measure the pressure of oil (specific gravity – 0.8) flowing a pipe. Its right limb is open to the atmosphere anfd the left limb is connected to the center of pipe which is 0.15m below the level of mercury in the right limb. If the difference of mercury level is 0.25m. Determine the absolute pressure of the oil in the pipe in N/m2
- The left limb of a U – tube manometer containing mercury is open to the atmosphere and the right limb is connected to a pipe carrying water under pressure. The center of the pipe is at the free surface level of mercury. Find the difference in the level of mercury in limbs if the absolute pressure in the pipe is 12.5m of water
- The vacuum pressure in a pipeline carrying water was measured by a U-Tube manometer. The difference of mercury between the limbs is 0.05m and the free surface of mercury in the limb is 0.1m below the center line of the pipe/ Find the pressure in the pipe in absolute, units in terms of water
- The pressure difference between two points A and B lying in the same level in a pipe line carrying water is measured of 1.512m of water by a differential manometer. Find the difference in the levels of mercury.
- A differential manometer is attached to two points of a horizontal pipieline carrying oil of relative density 0.8. If the mercury deflection is 0.8m. Calculate the pressure difference between the two points in terms of oil, water and Pascals.
- The pressure difference between two points A and B of the same level in a pipe carrying water is measured by inverted U- tube manometer containing toluene whose specific gravity is 0.875 The pressure gauge connected directly to the point A gives reading of 125kN/m2. If the height of water column at point A is 1.6m higher than that at B. Determine the pressure at point B
- A Differential manometer connected at two points A and B in a pipe containing an oil of specific gravity 0.85 shows a deflection in mercury levels as 120mm. Determine the pressure difference between A and B in terms of (a) Head of water and (b) KN/m2

**Unit 2 Fluid Flow, Flow through pipes and Impact of Jets **

**Chapter 2.1 Fluid Flow**

**Three Marks**

- List the Various types of flow
- Explain steady and unsteady flow
- Distinguish between turbulent flow and laminar flow
- Differentiate between uniform flow and non uniform flow
- Explain the continuity equation for one dimensional steady flow
- State Bernoulli’s theorem
- What are the assumptions made in deriving Bernoulli’s theorem
- Mention the limitations of Bernoulli’s theorem \
- compare venturimeter with orificemeter
- Explain the working of a pitot tube

**7 / 14 marks**

- State and Prove Bernoulli’s theorem. Mention the assumptions and limitations made in Bernoulli’s theorem
- Derive an expression for the discharge through orificemeter
- Draw a neat sketch of venturimeter , indicate the salient features, formula to find the discharge through venturimeter
- Derive an expression for the discharge through orificemeter
- A vertical pipe line 1.5m long tapers from top to bottom from 75mm diameter to 150mm diameter. Find the difference of pressures if the discharge through the pipe is 25 lps.
- A venturimeter is installed in a horizontal pipe line 300 mm diameter. The diameter at throat is 150 mm. The differential mercury – water manometer shows a deflection of 200mm. Determine Venturi head and discharge in lps, if the coefficient of meter is 0.98.
- A venturimeter is connected to a vertical pipe line carrying water. The inlet and throat diameters are 200mm and 1000mm respectively. The differential manometer connected to the inlet and the throat of venturimeter gives a reading of 250mm. Determine the rate of discharge of water in liters per second if Cd is 0.98.
- A horizontal venturimeter of inlet diameter 300 mm and throat diameter 230 mm discharges 260 liters / sec.
- Calculate the flow of water in litre per second through a venturimeter of size 450mm x 200mm when the differential manometer connected to the inlet and throat shows a reaing of 225mm of mercury. Take coefficient of meter as 0.95

**Chapter 2.2 Flow through Pipes**

**3 Marks**

- Distinguish between major and minor losses
- State any five major losses those occur in pipe flows
- Write down the expression for Chezy’s formula.
- Define hydraulic mean radius
- Define wetted perimeter
- Define hydraulic gradient line (H.G.L) and total energy gradient line (T.G.L)
- write down the formula for Darcy – weisbach equation
- Calculate the head loss due to friction in a pipe 0.5m in diameter and 1000m long. The velocity of flow of water is 2m/s and the coefficient of friction is 0.005.

**7 / 14 marks**

- State the laws of fluid friction of turbulent flow (7 marks)
- What is the difference between major and minor losses? (7 marks)
- Define a)Wetted perimeter b) Hydraulic radius with reference to pipe flow ( 7 marks)
- The difference of heads between the two ends of a pipe 400m long and 480mm diameter is 1.5 m Taking Darcy’s constant as 0.04 and neglecting minor losses find the discharge through the pipe (7 marks)
- The velocity of water in a pipe is 5 m/s, diameter of the pipe is 5 m/s. The length of the pipe is 500m . Find the loss of head due to friction if F= 0.008 (7 marks)
- A pipe line 10 km long delivers a power of 50kW at its outlet end. The pressure is 4500 kN/m2 at inlet and pressure drop per km of pipe line is 50 kN/m2. Take F=0.025. Find the diameter of pipe and efficiency of transmission.
- Using Chezys formula, determine the head lost due to friction in a pipe of 80mm diameter and length 35m . The velocity of flow is 2 m/s. Take chezys Constant C = 100
- Water is supplied to a polytechnic campus having 1500 students from a reservoir which is built 4km away from the campus. Each student requires 250 litres of water per day. The daily requirement is pumped 8 hours. The diameter of the water supply pipe is 150mm. Determine the loss of head due to friction if friction factor F = 0.032 (10 MARKS)
- Water is supplied from the hydro power station by means of a pipe line of 200mm diameter and 12 km long. The pressure at the power station is 45000kN/m2. Find the maximum power that can be transmitted to the factory. Take f = 0.028
- Determine the head loss due to friction using (i) Darcy’s formula and (ii) Chezy’s formula

**Chapter 2.3 Impact of Jets**

**3 Marks **

- Define the term impact of jet mention its applications.
- Write down the expressions for the force exerted and workdone by a jet on a fixed vertical plate in the direction of the jet.
- Write down the condition for maximum efficeincy and the value of maximum efficiency When jet strikes a series of vanes fitted on a wheel.
- State the applications of impact of jets.
- What is a nozzle? what is its use?
- A Jet of water 0.25mm diameter is moving with a velocity of 30 m/s. Find the force exerted by the jet if the plate is moving with a velocity of 12 m/s in the direction of the jet.
- A Jet of water 80mm diameter is moving with a velocity of 10 m/s strikes a plate moving with a velocity of 3 m/s in the direction of the jet. Determine the force exerted by the jet.
- A jet of water 80mm diameter moves with a velocity of 15 m/s and strikes a series of vanes moving with a velocity of 10 m/s. Calculate the force exerted by the jet.

**7 / 14 marks**

- Write the expression for the force exerted and workdone by the jet for the following conditions (a) on a flat stationary plate (b) on a moving plate (c) On a series of moving plates (7 marks)
- What is an impact of jet and state its applications? (7 marks)
- A jet of 75mm diameter moving with a velocity of 18 m/s impinging on a series of vanes moving with a velocity of 8m/s. Find (i) Force exerted by the jet (ii) Workdone by the jet (iii) Efficiency of the jet (iv) Vane velocity for maximum efficiency
- A jet of water 250 mm diameter is discharging under a constant head of 53m. Find the force exerted by the jet on a plate which is moving with a velocity 12 m/s in the direction of jet. Take Cv= 0.93. Calculate the workdone by the jet per sec (5 marks)

**Unit 3**

**Chapter 3.1 Hydraulic Turbines**

**3 Marks**

- What are the functions of a draft tube?
- Define turbine
- What are the functions of a surge tank?
- Differentiate between Francis and Kaplan turbine.
- What is an Impulse turbine? Give an Example
- What is a reaction turbine? Give an Example.
- What is a nozzle? What is the use of nozzle?
- List the main parts of pelton wheel turbine.
- List the main parts of Francis turbine
- List the main parts of Kaplan turbine
- What is cavitation?

**7 / 14 marks**

- What is meant by turbine? How are turbines classified? (7 marks)
- Explain with a neat sketch the working principle of pelton wheel turbine. (14 marks)
- Explain the main components of Pelton wheel turbine.
- Explain the construction and working of a francis turbine with a neat sketch
- Explain the working of a kaplan turbine with a neat sketch
- What is a draft tube? Mention the functions of a Draft tube (7 marks)
- What is a surge tank? Explain its functions ( 7 marks)
- State the differences between impulse and reaction turbine.

**Chapter 3.2 Centrifugal Pumps**

**3 Marks**

- Mention the different types of Casings used in centrifugal pump
- Define pump
- What is Priming?
- Name the types of impellers used in centrifugal pump.
- Explain the need of foot valve in a centrifugal pump.
- State the functions of casing in a centrifugal pump.
- What are the components of centrifugal pump?
- Mention the advantages of multi stage pumps.
- Difference between single stage and multi stage pumps.
- State any four advantages of Centrifugal pumps over Reciprocating pumps.
- In a centrifugal pump, the manometric and mechanical efficiencies are 80% and 70% respectively. Find overall efficiency.
- Define (i) Manometric head (ii) Workdone
- Define i) Manometric efficiency ii) Mechanical Efficiency iii) Overall Efficiency

**7 / 14 marks**

- How are centrifugal pumps classified? ( 7 marks)
- Explain with a neat sketch the working of single stage centrifugal pump. (14 marks)
- Mention the different types of casings used in a centrifugal pump. Explain any two types with a neat sketch.
- State the different types of Impellers used in centrifugal pump. Explain any two in detail.
- State the conditions underwhich two centrifugal pumps can be connected (i) in series and (ii) in parallel.
- Explain with a neat sketch the working of Multi stage centrifugal pumps.
- A Centrifugal pump is required to lift 4m^3 of water per second to a height of 5m. If the total loss of head is 0.4m. Compute the maximum power of the motor to run the pump. Efficiency of pump and motor is 75%

**Chapter 3.3 Reciprocating pumps.**

**3 marks **

- Define slip of a reciprocating pump.
- Write down the expression for theoretical power required to drive a reciprocating pump.
- A reciprocating pump delivers 16.5 litres / sec of water. The theoretical discharge is 17.8 liters/second. Find the slip
- What is meant by negative slip? when it occurs?
- What is an indicator diagram?
- Define percentage slip.
- What is the purpose of air vessels in reciprocating pump?
- Define Coefficient of discharge and slip
- Mention the functions of air vessels

**7 / 14 marks**

- Draw a neat sketch of a single acting reciprocating pump and explain its working.
- Explain with a neat sketch the working of a double acting reciprocating pump.
- Define slip, negative slip, percentage slip and co-efficient of discharge of reciprocating pump.
- What is an air vessel? State the function of air vessel.
- Derive an expression to find the actual power required for running double acting reciprocating pump.
- Explain the need of air vessels in reciprocating pump.
- Explain the difference between single acting and double acting reciprocating pumps with the help of line diagram
- A single acting reciprocating pump has a plunger diameter of 250mm and stroke of 350mm. If the speed of the pump is 60 rpm and it delivers 0.0165 m3 per second of water. Find the coefficient of discharge, the slip and the percentage slip of the pump.

**Unit 4 Hydraulic Systems.**

**3 marks**

- State any three merits of hydraulic systems.
- Name the basic components required in hydraulic system.
- Mention the types of Hydraulic pumps.
- State the functions of an accumulator.
- What is an accumulator? State any two of its functions.
- List the types of hydraulic accumulators.
- What is pressure relief valve? Draw its ISO symbol.
- Mention the three applications of hydraulic power.
- Draw the ISO symbol of fixed displacement pump.
- What is intensifier? When intensifier is used in hydraulic circuit? Mention its applications.
- What is hydraulic actuator? Mention the types of actuator.
- What are the requirements of a hydraulic system?
- Draw the ISO symbol of variable displacement pump.

**7 / 14 marks**

- Explain the working of a bladder type accumulator, spring loaded and gas loaded accumulator with a neat sketch.
- Explain the working of a pressure intensifier with a neat sketch.
- Explain the following with neat sketches (i) Radial piston pump (ii) Pressure intensifier
- Explain the working of External gear pump with a neat sketch
- Explain the working of Internal gear pump with a neat sketch
- Explain the working of a radial piston pump with a neat sketch
- Explain the working of a Vane piston pump with a neat sketch
- Explain the working of a unloading valve with neat sketch
- Explain the purpose of pressure reducing valve
- Explain the hydraulic circuit for the operation of double acting cylinder with metering – in and metering out control
- Explain the hydraulic circuit with ISO Symbols for the quick return motion of a shaper
- Draw and explain the hydraulic circuit for the table movement of milling machine
- Compare hydraulic and pneumatic systems

**Unit 5 Pneumatic Systems**

**3 marks**

- Name the basic components required in pneumatic system
- What is the function of air filter?
- What is FRL unit?
- What is the purpose of shuttle valve?
- What is the purpose of quick exhaust valve?
- What is meant by pilot operated DCV?
- What is Meter in circuit?
- What is Meter out circuit?
- Draw the ISO symbol of 4/3 DCV used in a pneumatic circuits.
- Why should a lubricator be used in a pneumatic system?
- Draw the ISO symbol of FRL unit.
- Mention the advantages of pneumatic systems.
- Draw the ISO symbol of 4/2 DCV
- List three applications of pneumatic systems
- Draw the ISO Symbol of 3/2 DCV
- Why a pressure regulator is needed in a pneumatic system?
- Draw the ISO symbol for throttle valve.
- Draw the ISO Symbol of quick exhaust valve
- What is the function of flow control valve?
- Draw the ISO Symbol of relief valve
- Explain the working of 3/2 directional control valve.
- Explain 5/2 DCV
- Explain the working of shuttle valve
- Explain the function of quick exhaust valve.

** 7 / 14 Marks**

- Draw the layout of a typical pneumatic system and explain the various elements of pneumatic systems
- Explain the working of air filter used in pneumatic system with a neat sketch.
- Explain the working of a lubricator with a neat sketch.
- Describe with a line sketch Explain FRL Unit.
- Explain the working of air service unit (FRL Unit) with a neat sketch.
- With a neat sketch Explain a pressure regulator used to control pressure of air compressor.
- Draw a neat sketch of a pressure relief valve and explain its working.
- Explain the working of pressure regulating valve with a neat sketch.
- What is the function of directional control valve. classify the directional control valves
- Explain the working of a 3/2 DCV used in pneumatic system.
- Explain the working of 5/2 DCV in pneumatic system.
- What is the function of flow control valve? Explain any one flow control valve with a neat sketch.
- Explain the working of throttle valve with a neat sketch
- Describe shuttle valve with a neat sketch
- Write short notes on quick exhaust valve used in pneumatic system with a neat diagram.
- Explain the single acting cylinder circuit with a neat sketch.
- Draw and explain the circuit diagram for the operation of Double acting cylinder with metering in control and metering out control
- Explain with neat sketches the working of (i) shuttle valve (ii) quick exhaust valve in pneumatic system
- State the merits and demerits of pneumatic system.
- Mention the applications of Pneumatic system

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